On 9 July 2020, the European Commission published a “custody communication” to prepare for the end of the transition period between the EU and the UK. To support this approach, the European Commission is reviewing the more than 90 sectoral stakeholder preparedness notifications published during the Article 50 negotiations with the UK. These updates (availability warnings) in certain areas (for example. (B) tariffs, including rules of preference for origin, data protection, industrial products, chemicals, services, seconded workers, etc.) aimed at helping citizens, businesses and governments prepare for inevitable changes that will occur after the end of the transition period, regardless of the outcome of negotiations on future relations. For more information, see: Since January, the UK has been in the process of negotiating its future trade relations with other countries around the world. If the negotiations are not successful, there will be a Brexit without a deal. This view provides a guide to the withdrawal agreement and the expiry of the transition period. The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows.

Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on October 17, 2019, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP said they could not support the new agreement. [30] As of 1 January 2021, the United Kingdom will no longer be part of the internal market or customs union. Even if an agreement on future relations is reached by the end of the year, the EU`s relationship with the UK will change radically and will be very different from those of the UNITED Kingdom, which was a member of the single market. Take, for example, the customs and tax formalities that will then be necessary. Like the EU Member States, citizens and businesses in Germany and the EU as a whole must adapt to these consequences of the end of the transition period, whether or not an agreement is reached on the future partnership with the UK. The withdrawal agreement sets out the conditions for the UK`s withdrawal from the EU, which will come into force on 31 January 2020 at 11 p.m. (“day of withdrawal”). The Government Withdrawal Agreement (WAB), which will take the UK out of the EU on 31 January, has passed all its stages in Parliament and has received royal approval. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement[10] the largest vote against the British government in history. [31] The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day. [10] On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons.

[32] A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevented British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on by the House of Commons. [34] [35] [36] An abbreviated version of the withdrawal agreement, in which the annex political statement had been withdrawn, consisted of the test of “substantial amendments,” so that a third vote was held on 29 March 2019, but was rejected by 58 votes. [37] On the European Union side, the European Parliament also approved the ratification of the agreement on 29 January 2020[40] and the Council of the European Union approved the conclusion of the agreement by e-mail on 30 January 2020. [42] That is why, on 30 January 2020, the European Union also tabled its instrument for ratifying the agreement, concluding the agreement[43] allowing it to: